Um dos motivos da agressão alemã e início da II Guerra Mundial foi o plano da Alemanha nazista de conquistar novos territórios e colonizá-los com população. Übersetzung im Kontext von „nazista“ in Portugiesisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Não imaginam como é um verdadeiro nazista. Übersetzung im Kontext von „nazista“ in Italienisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: È una rappresentazione del regime nazista.
Italienisch-Deutsch Übersetzung für "nazista"nazista [naˈtsista] SUBST m/f il/la. nazista · Nationalsozialist m, -in. Pagine nella categoria "Personalità della Germania nazista". Questa categoria contiene le pagine indicate di seguito, su un totale di Guido Gonella e il giudizio sulla Germania nazista. in Die Herausforderung der Diktaturen. Page Range: – DOI: 1051am.com
Nazista Navigation menu VideoAlemanha condena nazista Outro nazista de alta patente, o ministro da Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, afirmou categoricamente o caráter socialista do nazismo ao escrever em seu diário que, se ele tivesse que escolher entre o bolchevismo e o capitalismo, "seria melhor para nós ir para baixo com o bolchevismo do que viver na escravidão eterna do capitalismo". . Nazi definition is - a member of a German fascist party controlling Germany from to under Adolf Hitler. How to use Nazi in a sentence. Definición de nazista en el Diccionario de español en línea. Significado de nazista diccionario. traducir nazista significado nazista traducción de nazista Sinónimos de nazista, antónimos de nazista. Nazista, Luanda. 34 likes · 16 talking about this. Musician/Band. Ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and state Part of a series on Nazism Organizations National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) Sturmabteilung (SA) Schutzstaffel (SS) Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) Hitler Youth (HJ) Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ) League of German Girls (BDM) National Socialist German Doctors' League National Socialist German Students. Nazider sich vor dem Mossad versteckt. Crea un libro Scarica come PDF Versione stampabile. Möchten Sie ein Wort, eine Phrase oder eine Übersetzung hinzufügen?
Wenn Sie die Spiele in 4K verfolgen mchten, macht sich Nazista dem Urheberrecht strafbar. - "nazista" Deutsch ÜbersetzungSchwedisch Wörterbücher.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press. The History of Anti-Semitism: From the Time of Christ to the Court Jews.
Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time. Trump's Counter-Revolution. Londres: John Hunt Publishing. The New Hacker's Dictionary.
Cambridge: MIT Press. The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle. O Carisma de Adolf Hitler. Lisboa: Leya. Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics.
Ottawa : Jameson Books. The House That Hitler Built. Death by Government: Genocide and Mass Murder Since Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil.
Hitler's Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life. Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. Nova Iorque: Simon and Schuster.
Louisville : Westminster John Knox Press. Adolf Hitler. Germany in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Cultural History of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich.
Nova Iorque: Frederick A. Friedrich Ratzel: A Biographical Memoir and Bibliography. Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Efforts to Experience the Holocaust.
Ithaca : Cornell University Press. The Most Dangerous Man in America: Rush Limbaugh's Assault on Reason. Nova Iorque: Macmillan. Culture and Crisis: The Case of Germany and Sweden.
Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions, and Political Behavior. Leitura adicional Arendt, Hannah .
Origens do totalitarismo. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, — Wellingborough : The Aquarian Press.
Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. Nova Iorque: New York University Press. The Third Reich in Power.
Nova Iorque: Penguin Books. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. The Struggle for Religious Freedom in Germany.
LTI - Lingua Tertii Imperii. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto. Baltimore : JHU Press. The persecution of the Catholic church in the third reich: facts and documents.
Christian counter-attack: Europe's churches against nazism. The Third Reich. Londres: Amber Books. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage.
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, and Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion.
The government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.
From the latter half of the s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met.
The Saarland voted by plebiscite to rejoin Germany in , and in Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland , which had been de-militarized after World War I.
Germany seized Austria in the Anschluss of , and demanded and received the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia in that same year. In March , the Slovak state was proclaimed and became a client state of Germany, and the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was established on the remainder of the occupied Czech Lands.
Shortly after, Germany pressured Lithuania into ceding Memel to the Third Reich. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union and invaded Poland on 1 September , launching World War II in Europe.
By early , Germany and their European allies in the Axis powers controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited the raw materials and labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. Genocide and mass murder became hallmarks of the regime.
Starting in , hundreds of thousands of German citizens with mental or physical disabilities were murdered in hospitals and asylums. Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads accompanied the German armed forces inside the occupied territories and conducted the mass killings of millions of Jews and other Holocaust victims.
After , millions of others were imprisoned, worked to death , or murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps.
This genocide is known as the Holocaust. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in was initially successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the United States into the war meant that the Wehrmacht German armed forces lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in and by late had been pushed back to the pre border.
Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France , Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, and capitulated in May Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war.
The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
Common English terms for the German state in the Nazi era are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, a translation of the Nazi propaganda term Drittes Reich , was first used in Das Dritte Reich , a book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck.
The book counted the Holy Roman Empire — as the first Reich and the German Empire — as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years to It was a republic with a semi-presidential system.
The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism including violence from left- and right-wing paramilitaries , contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I , and a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties.
The government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, and food riots.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , commonly known as the Nazi Party, was founded in It was the renamed successor of the German Workers' Party DAP formed one year earlier, and one of several far-right political parties then active in Germany.
When the stock market in the United States crashed on 24 October , the effect in Germany was dire. Hitler and the Nazis prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party.
They promised to strengthen the economy and provide jobs. After the federal election of , the party was the largest in the Reichstag , holding seats with Although the Nazis won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of , they did not have a majority.
Hitler therefore led a short-lived coalition government formed with the German National People's Party.
This event is known as the Machtergreifung "seizure of power". On the night of 27 February , the Reichstag building was set afire.
Marinus van der Lubbe , a Dutch communist, was found guilty of starting the blaze. Hitler proclaimed that the arson marked the start of a communist uprising.
The Reichstag Fire Decree , imposed on 28 February , rescinded most civil liberties, including rights of assembly and freedom of the press.
The decree also allowed the police to detain people indefinitely without charges. The legislation was accompanied by a propaganda campaign that led to public support for the measure.
Violent suppression of communists by the SA was undertaken nationwide and 4, members of the Communist Party of Germany were arrested. In March , the Enabling Act , an amendment to the Weimar Constitution , passed in the Reichstag by a vote of to The remaining major political parties followed suit.
On 14 July Germany became a one-party state with the passage of a law decreeing the Nazi Party to be the sole legal party in Germany.
The founding of new parties was also made illegal, and all remaining political parties which had not already been dissolved were banned.
The Hitler cabinet used the terms of the Reichstag Fire Decree and later the Enabling Act to initiate the process of Gleichschaltung "co-ordination" , which brought all aspects of life under party control.
These Commissars had the power to appoint and remove local governments, state parliaments, officials, and judges. In this way Germany became a de facto unitary state , with all state governments controlled by the central government under the Nazis.
All civilian organisations, including agricultural groups, volunteer organisations, and sports clubs, had their leadership replaced with Nazi sympathisers or party members; these civic organisations either merged with the Nazi Party or faced dissolution.
The day after, SA stormtroopers demolished union offices around the country; all trade unions were forced to dissolve and their leaders were arrested.
The Nazi regime abolished the symbols of the Weimar Republic—including the black, red, and gold tricolour flag —and adopted reworked symbolism.
The previous imperial black, white, and red tricolour was restored as one of Germany's two official flags; the second was the swastika flag of the Nazi Party, which became the sole national flag in The Party anthem " Horst-Wessel-Lied " "Horst Wessel Song" became a second national anthem.
Germany was still in a dire economic situation, as six million people were unemployed and the balance of trade deficit was daunting.
The SA leadership continued to apply pressure for greater political and military power. In response, Hitler used the Schutzstaffel SS and Gestapo to purge the entire SA leadership.
On 2 August , Hindenburg died. The previous day, the cabinet had enacted the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich", which stated that upon Hindenburg's death the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the chancellor.
The new law provided an altered loyalty oath for servicemen so that they affirmed loyalty to Hitler personally rather than the office of supreme commander or the state.
Most Germans were relieved that the conflicts and street fighting of the Weimar era had ended. They were deluged with propaganda orchestrated by Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels , who promised peace and plenty for all in a united, Marxist-free country without the constraints of the Versailles Treaty.
Beginning in April , scores of measures defining the status of Jews and their rights were instituted. Eventually the Nazis declared the Jews as undesirable to remain among German citizens and society.
In the early years of the regime, Germany was without allies, and its military was drastically weakened by the Versailles Treaty.
France, Poland, Italy, and the Soviet Union each had reasons to object to Hitler's rise to power. Poland suggested to France that the two nations engage in a preventive war against Germany in March Fascist Italy objected to German claims in the Balkans and on Austria , which Benito Mussolini considered to be in Italy's sphere of influence.
As early as February , Hitler announced that rearmament must begin, albeit clandestinely at first, as to do so was in violation of the Versailles Treaty.
On 17 May , Hitler gave a speech before the Reichstag outlining his desire for world peace and accepted an offer from American President Franklin D.
Roosevelt for military disarmament, provided the other nations of Europe did the same. In , Hitler told his military leaders that a war in the east should begin in When the Italian invasion of Ethiopia led to only mild protests by the British and French governments, on 7 March Hitler used the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance as a pretext to order the army to march 3, troops into the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland in violation of the Versailles Treaty.
Hitler sent military supplies and assistance to the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War , which began in July The German Condor Legion included a range of aircraft and their crews, as well as a tank contingent.
The aircraft of the Legion destroyed the city of Guernica in In February , Hitler emphasised to Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg the need for Germany to secure its frontiers.
Schuschnigg scheduled a plebiscite regarding Austrian independence for 13 March, but Hitler sent an ultimatum to Schuschnigg on 11 March demanding that he hand over all power to the Austrian Nazi Party or face an invasion.
German troops entered Austria the next day, to be greeted with enthusiasm by the populace. The Republic of Czechoslovakia was home to a substantial minority of Germans, who lived mostly in the Sudetenland.
Under pressure from separatist groups within the Sudeten German Party , the Czechoslovak government offered economic concessions to the region.
The crisis led to war preparations by Britain, Czechoslovakia, and France Czechoslovakia's ally. Attempting to avoid war, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain arranged a series of meetings, the result of which was the Munich Agreement , signed on 29 September The Czechoslovak government was forced to accept the Sudetenland's annexation into Germany.
Chamberlain was greeted with cheers when he landed in London, saying the agreement brought "peace for our time".
Austrian and Czech foreign exchange reserves were seized by the Nazis, as were stockpiles of raw materials such as metals and completed goods such as weaponry and aircraft, which were shipped to Germany.
The Reichswerke Hermann Göring industrial conglomerate took control of steel and coal production facilities in both countries.
In January , Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Poland. The British announced they would come to the aid of Poland if it was attacked.
Hitler, believing the British would not actually take action, ordered an invasion plan should be readied for September He expected this time they would be met by force.
The Germans reaffirmed their alliance with Italy and signed non-aggression pacts with Denmark, Estonia, and Latvia whilst trade links were formalised with Romania, Norway, and Sweden.
Germany's wartime foreign policy involved the creation of allied governments controlled directly or indirectly from Berlin.
They intended to obtain soldiers from allies such as Italy and Hungary and workers and food supplies from allies such as Vichy France. Bulgaria signed the pact on 17 November.
German efforts to secure oil included negotiating a supply from their new ally, Romania , who signed the Pact on 23 November, alongside the Slovak Republic.
Although Japan was a powerful ally, the relationship was distant, with little co-ordination or co-operation. For example, Germany refused to share their formula for synthetic oil from coal until late in the war.
Germany invaded Poland and captured the Free City of Danzig on 1 September , beginning World War II in Europe. Initially the intention was to deport them further east, or possibly to Madagascar.
But little other activity occurred until May, so the period became known as the " Phoney War ". From the start of the war, a British blockade on shipments to Germany affected its economy.
Germany was particularly dependent on foreign supplies of oil, coal, and grain. Denmark fell after less than a day , while most of Norway followed by the end of the month.
Against the advice of many of his senior military officers, in May Hitler ordered an attack on France and the Low Countries. In violation of the provisions of the Hague Convention , industrial firms in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium were put to work producing war materiel for Germany.
The Nazis seized from the French thousands of locomotives and rolling stock, stockpiles of weapons, and raw materials such as copper, tin, oil, and nickel.
Hitler's peace overtures to the new British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were rejected in July Grand Admiral Erich Raeder had advised Hitler in June that air superiority was a pre-condition for a successful invasion of Britain , so Hitler ordered a series of aerial attacks on Royal Air Force RAF airbases and radar stations, as well as nightly air raids on British cities, including London , Plymouth , and Coventry.
The German Luftwaffe failed to defeat the RAF in what became known as the Battle of Britain , and by the end of October, Hitler realised that air superiority would not be achieved.
He permanently postponed the invasion, a plan which the commanders of the German army had never taken entirely seriously.
In February , the German Afrika Korps arrived in Libya to aid the Italians in the North African Campaign. On 22 June , contravening the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact, about 3.
The invasion conquered a huge area, including the Baltic states, Belarus , and west Ukraine. After the successful Battle of Smolensk in September , Hitler ordered Army Group Centre to halt its advance to Moscow and temporarily divert its Panzer groups to aid in the encirclement of Leningrad and Kyiv.
The Moscow offensive, which resumed in October , ended disastrously in December. Four days later, Germany declared war on the United States.
Food was in short supply in the conquered areas of the Soviet Union and Poland, as the retreating armies had burned the crops in some areas, and much of the remainder was sent back to the Reich.
In his role as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan , Hermann Göring demanded increased shipments of grain from France and fish from Norway.
The harvest was good, and food supplies remained adequate in Western Europe. Germany and Europe as a whole were almost totally dependent on foreign oil imports.
Losses continued to mount after Stalingrad, leading to a sharp reduction in the popularity of the Nazi Party and deteriorating morale.
By the end of , the Germans had lost most of their eastern territorial gains. Many sorties were intentionally given civilian targets in an effort to destroy German morale.
By targeting oil refineries and factories, they crippled the German war effort by late On 6 June , American, British, and Canadian forces established a front in France with the D-Day landings in Normandy.
Hitler ordered the destruction of transport, bridges, industries, and other infrastructure—a scorched earth decree—but Armaments Minister Albert Speer prevented this order from being fully carried out.
The German Instrument of Surrender was signed 8 May, marking the end of the Nazi regime and the end of World War II in Europe.
Popular support for Hitler almost completely disappeared as the war drew to a close. Among soldiers and party personnel, suicide was often deemed an honourable and heroic alternative to surrender.
First-hand accounts and propaganda about the uncivilised behaviour of the advancing Soviet troops caused panic among civilians on the Eastern Front, especially women, who feared being raped.
High numbers of suicides took place in many other locations, including Neubrandenburg dead , Stolp in Pommern 1, dead ,  and Berlin, where at least 7, people committed suicide in Estimates of the total German war dead range from 5.
As a result of their defeat in World War I and the resulting Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine , Northern Schleswig , and Memel.
The Saarland became a protectorate of France under the condition that its residents would later decide by referendum which country to join, and Poland became a separate nation and was given access to the sea by the creation of the Polish Corridor, which separated Prussia from the rest of Germany, while Danzig was made a free city.
Germany regained control of the Saarland through a referendum held in and annexed Austria in the Anschluss of Between and , German forces invaded Poland , Denmark , Norway , France , Luxembourg , the Netherlands , Belgium , Yugoslavia , Greece , and the Soviet Union.
Some of the conquered territories were incorporated into Germany as part of Hitler's long-term goal of creating a Greater Germanic Reich.
Several areas, such as Alsace-Lorraine, were placed under the authority of an adjacent Gau regional district.
The Reichskommissariate Reich Commissariats , quasi-colonial regimes, were established in some occupied countries.
Areas placed under German administration included the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , Reichskommissariat Ostland encompassing the Baltic states and Belarus , and Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
Conquered areas of Belgium and France were placed under control of the Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France. Part of Poland was incorporated into the Reich, and the General Government was established in occupied central Poland.
The Nazis were a far-right fascist political party which arose during the social and financial upheavals that occurred following the end of World War I.
Influenced by the Völkisch movement , the regime was against cultural modernism and supported the development of an extensive military at the expense of intellectualism.
Hitler ruled Germany autocratically by asserting the Führerprinzip "leader principle" , which called for absolute obedience of all subordinates.
He viewed the government structure as a pyramid, with himself—the infallible leader—at the apex. Party rank was not determined by elections, and positions were filled through appointment by those of higher rank.
While top officials reported to Hitler and followed his policies, they had considerable autonomy. Successive Reichsstatthalter decrees between and abolished the existing Länder constituent states of Germany and replaced them with new administrative divisions , the Gaue , governed by Nazi leaders Gauleiters.
This led to a bureaucratic tangle of overlapping jurisdictions and responsibilities typical of the administrative style of the Nazi regime.
Jewish civil servants lost their jobs in , except for those who had seen military service in World War I. Members of the Party or party supporters were appointed in their place.
In August , civil servants and members of the military were required to swear an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler. These laws became the basis of the Führerprinzip , the concept that Hitler's word overrode all existing laws.
Most of the judicial system and legal codes of the Weimar Republic remained in place to deal with non-political crimes.
Thousands were arrested and confined indefinitely without trial. A new type of court, the Volksgerichtshof "People's Court" , was established in to deal with political cases.
The Nazis used propaganda to promulgate the concept of Rassenschande "race defilement" to justify the need for racial laws. These laws initially prohibited sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews and were later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring".
The law also permitted the Nazis to deny citizenship to anyone who was not supportive enough of the regime.
The unified armed forces of Germany from to were called the Wehrmacht defence force. This included the Heer army , Kriegsmarine navy , and the Luftwaffe air force.
From 2 August , members of the armed forces were required to pledge an oath of unconditional obedience to Hitler personally. In contrast to the previous oath, which required allegiance to the constitution of the country and its lawful establishments, this new oath required members of the military to obey Hitler even if they were being ordered to do something illegal.
In spite of efforts to prepare the country militarily, the economy could not sustain a lengthy war of attrition. A strategy was developed based on the tactic of Blitzkrieg "lightning war" , which involved using quick coordinated assaults that avoided enemy strong points.
Attacks began with artillery bombardment, followed by bombing and strafing runs. Next the tanks would attack and finally the infantry would move in to secure the captured area.
The decision to attack the Soviet Union and the decisive defeat at Stalingrad led to the retreat of the German armies and the eventual loss of the war.
The Sturmabteilung SA; Storm Detachment , or Brownshirts, founded in , was the first paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party; their initial assignment was to protect Nazi leaders at rallies and assemblies.
Röhm hoped to assume command of the army and absorb it into the ranks of the SA. After the purge of , the SA was no longer a major force.
Initially a small bodyguard unit under the auspices of the SA, the Schutzstaffel SS; Protection Squadron grew to become one of the largest and most powerful groups in Nazi Germany.
It was dependent on the regular army for heavy weaponry and equipment, and most units were under tactical control of the High Command of the Armed Forces OKW.
With recruitment and conscription based only on expansion, by the Waffen-SS could not longer claim to be an elite fighting force.
SS formations committed many war crimes against civilians and allied servicemen. In , Himmler organised an SS intelligence service which became known as the Sicherheitsdienst SD; Security Service under his deputy, Heydrich.
This holding company owned housing corporations, factories, and publishing houses. The most pressing economic matter the Nazis initially faced was the 30 percent national unemployment rate.
Hjalmar Schacht , President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics, created a scheme for deficit financing in May Capital projects were paid for with the issuance of promissory notes called Mefo bills.
When the notes were presented for payment, the Reichsbank printed money. Hitler and his economic team expected that the upcoming territorial expansion would provide the means of repaying the soaring national debt.
In October , the Junkers Aircraft Works was expropriated. In concert with other aircraft manufacturers and under the direction of Aviation Minister Göring, production was ramped up.
From a workforce of 3, people producing units per year in , the industry grew to employ a quarter of a million workers manufacturing over 10, technically advanced aircraft annually less than ten years later.
An elaborate bureaucracy was created to regulate imports of raw materials and finished goods with the intention of eliminating foreign competition in the German marketplace and improving the nation's balance of payments.
The Nazis encouraged the development of synthetic replacements for materials such as oil and textiles. Any profits in excess of that amount would be turned over to the Reich.
By , Farben regretted making the deal, as excess profits were by then being generated. Major public works projects financed with deficit spending included the construction of a network of Autobahnen and providing funding for programmes initiated by the previous government for housing and agricultural improvements.
Envisioning widespread car ownership as part of the new Germany, Hitler arranged for designer Ferdinand Porsche to draw up plans for the KdF-wagen Strength Through Joy car , intended to be an automobile that everyone could afford.
A prototype was displayed at the International Motor Show in Berlin on 17 February With the outbreak of World War II, the factory was converted to produce military vehicles.
None were sold until after the war, when the vehicle was renamed the Volkswagen people's car. In questo l'NSDAP ebbe molto successo. Tra il e il il PIL della Germania Nazista crebbe con un tasso medio annuo del 9.
La corsa sfrenata al riarmo, la creazione di un'imponente macchina bellica e le concomitanti pressioni per il suo utilizzo , hanno portato alcuni commentatori alla conclusione che la guerra in Europa era inevitabile solo per motivi meramente economici.
Sul piano internazionale, il partito nazista accreditava che una cabala bancaria internazionale fosse responsabile della depressione degli anni trenta.
Comunque, l'esistenza di grosse banche internazionali o banche d'affari era ben nota a quei tempi. Molte di queste organizzazioni erano in grado di esercitare influenza sugli stati nazionali tramite il rifiuto o la concessione di crediti, e la Repubblica di Weimar era particolarmente vulnerabile a questa minaccia per via delle esose riparazioni di guerra pretese soprattutto dalla Francia.
Il primo provvedimento mirava a colpire gl'interessi di banche private, sottraendo loro la produzione di moneta. Al contempo, venne instaurato un protezionismo tendente all' autarchia , in quanto venivano prodotti beni a consumo esclusivamente interno.
Al fine di non creare inflazione ed aggravare il bilancio dello stato ed il debito pubblico si ricorse ad uno strumento tipico dei mercati chiusi e degli stati dittatoriali, l'utilizzo d'una speciale tipologia d' obbligazione , circolante unicamente entro i confini naturali ed a valore prefissato e costante non pagava cedole , la Metallurgische Forschungsgesellschaft , " MEFO ".
Queste obbligazioni o - meglio - questo genere di cambiale , assieme al lavoro che gratuitamente ogni studente doveva prestare per un mese all'anno a favore dello stato, finanziarono la nascita della rete autostradale tedesca circa 3.
L'istituto che presiedeva i lavori autostradali era la " Autobahn " " autostrada " in tedesco , l'equivalente dell'italiana IRI.
Anche la creazione della Volkswagen "Auto del popolo", in tedesco si inserisce in questo preciso contesto. Le automobili prodotte furono poche, in quanto la fabbrica venne quasi immediatamente convertita alla produzione di veicoli militari.
Il regime nazista non poteva ammettere alcuna forma di autonomia politica od economica entro i confini nazionali.
Come il termine "nazionalsocialista" della sigla NSDAP suggerisce, la motivazione primaria del partito era quella di incorporare le risorse internazionali all'interno del Reich con la forza, piuttosto che con il commercio si confronti con il socialismo internazionale praticato dall' Unione Sovietica e con l'organizzazione per il commercio detta COMECON.
Dal punto di vista economico, nazismo e fascismo sono collegati in quanto il primo si ispira al secondo, pur rimanendo separato nell'ideologia.
Piuttosto che uno Stato che richiede beni alle imprese ed alloca le materie prime necessarie alla produzione come nei sistemi socialisti , lo Stato paga per tali beni.
Questa idea venne mantenuta per tutto il tempo in cui tenne il potere, con il controllo statale usato come mezzo per eliminare il presupposto conflitto nelle relazioni tra dirigenza e forza lavoro.
Assieme all'industria che avrebbe operato in un sistema protetto da barriere doganali, al commercio svincolato dalle banche e dal regime aureo, anche l'agricoltura sarebbe stata regolata da ferree leggi in merito.
Nello statuto programmatico del , il punto 17 riguardava esplicitamente la questione agraria: "Sosteniamo una riforma agraria che si accordi ai nostri requisiti nazionali, e l'introduzione di una legge che espropri senza indennizzo i possidenti di qualsiasi terreno che sia necessario agli scopi comuni.
L'abolizione degli interessi sui prestiti all'agricoltura e il divieto di tutte le speculazioni sulla terra. Con questa legge si stabiliva che i contadini dovessero possedere un appezzamento minimo di terreno che consentisse loro di vivere convenientemente, a prescindere da eventuali fluttuazioni del mercato, e stabiliva l'estensione minima del terreno.
Il terreno offerto ai contadini a condizioni economiche assai vantaggiose era possibile anche il riscatto a rate senza interessi maturandi era ereditario ma inalienabile.
Lo scopo del Reichnährstand era quello di conseguire la completa indipendenza alimentare della Germania e di mantenere i prezzi dei prodotti agricoli ad un livello tale da salvaguardare i profitti dei produttori senza privare i cittadini delle derrate alimentari indispensabili, e senza scendere al di sotto del minimo fabbisogno calorico individuale quotidiano.
Il nazismo era profondamente avverso al libero mercato, oltre che al comunismo. Infatti, si identificano alcuni concetti, tali per cui, non si possono scindere gli eventi storici tra il ed il Secondo l'autore, infatti, la prima e la seconda guerra mondiale vanno visti come un unico conflitto inframmezzati da un ventennio di "pace armata".
A sostegno della propria tesi porta i seguenti argomenti:. Queste teorie vennero usate per giustificare un programma politico totalitario di odio e soppressione razziale, usando tutti i mezzi dello Stato e soffocando il dissenso.
Similmente alle ideologie fasciste, il nazismo era virulentemente razzista. Alcune delle manifestazioni del razzismo nazista furono:. Anche l'anti-cristianesimo faceva parte dell'ideologia nazista, analogamente alle politiche comuniste, socialiste o socialiste internazionali .
Sempre dal punto di vista scientifico, anche la geopolitica come disciplina visse fino agli anni '80 un certo abbandono, essendo stata associata al determinismo nazista.
Sotto Hitler, il nazionalismo etnico e il razzismo vennero uniti assieme attraverso un'ideologia militarista per servire i suoi fini.
Trattasi di un antico simbolo, utilizzato da diverse culture in diverse epoche storiche ad es. In quegli anni numerosissimi furono gli scontri armati fra i due partiti.
I comunisti ritenevano "principale nemico" il partito socialista e non presero alcuna iniziativa a livello parlamentare contro i nazisti.
Acest articol este parte a seriei Nazism. Armata Wehrmacht Heer Kriegsmarine Luftwaffe. Istoria Germaniei. Acest articol este parte a unei serii.
Triburile germanice. Imperiu Francilor. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality , opposed cosmopolitan internationalism and sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the " common good ", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organisation,  which tended to match the general outlook of collectivism or communitarianism rather than economic socialism.
The Nazi Party's precursor, the pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party DAP , was founded on 5 January By the early s, the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats SPD and the Communists KPD , and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation.
The National Socialist Program , or "25 Points", was adopted in and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalisation of some industries.
In Mein Kampf , literally "My Struggle" and published in —, Hitler outlined the antisemitism and anti-communism at the heart of his political philosophy as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion.
The Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of , making them the largest party in the legislature by far, albeit still short of an outright majority.
Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in by President Paul von Hindenburg through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party.
With the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg and a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung SA and the Schutzstaffel SS functioned as the paramilitary organisations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more socially and economically radical factions in the mid Night of the Long Knives , including the leadership of the SA.
After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer , meaning "leader".
From that point, Hitler was effectively the dictator of Nazi Germany — also known as the Third Reich — under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalised, imprisoned or murdered.
During World War II , many millions of people—including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—were eventually exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust.
Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is widely regarded as immoral and evil , with only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis , describing themselves as followers of National Socialism.
The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei English: National-Socialist German Workers' Party and they officially used the acronym NSDAP.
The term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant , characterising an awkward and clumsy person.
In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Igna t z itself a variation of the name Ignatius —Igna t z being a common name at the time in Bavaria , the area from which the NSDAP emerged.
In the s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this. Using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist English: Socialist as an example,  they shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische , to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of "National Socialism".
After the NSDAP's rise to power in the s, the use of the term "Nazi" by itself or in terms such as " Nazi Germany ", " Nazi regime " and so on was popularised by German exiles outside the country, but not in Germany.
From them, the term spread into other languages and it was eventually brought back into Germany after World War II. In , members of the National Socialist Party answered interview questions put to them by Professor Theodore Abel from Columbia University.
They similarly did not refer to themselves as "Nazis. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in both theory and practice as a form of far-right politics.
Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in were able to rob the nation of its arms. There are only two possibilities in Germany; do not imagine that the people will forever go with the middle party, the party of compromises; one day it will turn to those who have most consistently foretold the coming ruin and have sought to dissociate themselves from it.
And that party is either the Left: and then God help us! When asked in a 27 January interview whether he supported the "bourgeois right-wing", Hitler claimed that Nazism was not exclusively for any class and he indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements from both "camps" by stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition , it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism".
Historians regard the equation of Nazism as "Hitlerism" as too simplistic since the term was used prior to the rise of Hitler and the Nazis and the different ideologies incorporated into Nazism were already well established in certain parts of German society before World War I.
The Nazis, the far-right monarchists, the reactionary German National People's Party DNVP and others, such as monarchist officers in the German Army and several prominent industrialists, formed an alliance in opposition to the Weimar Republic on 11 October in Bad Harzburg , officially known as the "National Front", but commonly referred to as the Harzburg Front.
The Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and they called themselves an anti-bourgeois party.
The Nazis denounced them as "an insignificant heap of reactionaries". Kaiser Wilhelm II , who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, initially supported the Nazi Party.
His four sons, including Prince Eitel Friedrich and Prince Oskar , became members of the Nazi Party in hopes that in exchange for their support, the Nazis would permit the restoration of the monarchy.
There were factions within the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical. Those views were shared by Otto Strasser , who later left the Nazi Party and formed the Black Front in the belief that Hitler had allegedly betrayed the party's socialist goals by endorsing capitalism.
When the Nazi Party emerged from obscurity to become a major political force after , the conservative faction rapidly gained more influence, as wealthy donors took an interest in the Nazis as a potential bulwark against communism.
Large segments of the Nazi Party, particularly among the members of the Sturmabteilung SA , were committed to the party's official socialist, revolutionary and anti-capitalist positions and expected both a social and an economic revolution when the party gained power in Furthermore, Röhm desired that the SA absorb the much smaller German Army into its ranks under his leadership.
Before he joined the Bavarian Army to fight in World War I , Hitler had lived a bohemian lifestyle as a petty street watercolour artist in Vienna and Munich and he maintained elements of this lifestyle later on, going to bed very late and rising in the afternoon, even after he became Chancellor and then Führer.
According to historian Thomas Weber, Hitler attended the funeral of communist Kurt Eisner a German Jew , wearing a black mourning armband on one arm and a red communist armband on the other,  which he took as evidence that Hitler's political beliefs had not yet solidified.
This statement has been disputed by the contention that he was not an antisemite at that time,  even though it is well established that he read many antisemitic tracts and journals during that time and admired Karl Lueger , the antisemitic mayor of Vienna.
Hitler expressed opposition to capitalism, regarding it as having Jewish origins and accusing capitalism of holding nations ransom to the interests of a parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class.
German business leaders disliked Nazi ideology but came to support Hitler, because they saw the Nazis as a useful ally to promote their interests.
Although he opposed communist ideology, Hitler publicly praised the Soviet Union 's leader Joseph Stalin and Stalinism on numerous occasions.
Hitler admired the British Empire and its colonial system as living proof of Germanic superiority over "inferior" races and saw the United Kingdom as Germany's natural ally.
These Powers are Great Britain and Italy. The historical roots of Nazism are to be found in various elements of European political culture which were in circulation in the intellectual capitals of the continent, what Joachim Fest called the "scrapheap of ideas" prevalent at the time.
Nazi ideology were to be found in the radical positions of ideological protest movements [in pre Germany]. These were: a virulent anti-Semitism, a blood-and-soil ideology, the notion of a master race, [and] the idea of territorial acquisition and settlement in the East.
These ideas were embedded in a popular nationalism which was vigorously anti-modernist, anti-humanist and pseudo-religious. Brought together, the result was an anti-intellectual and politically semi-illiterate ideology lacking cohesion, a product of mass culture which allowed its followers emotional attachment and offered a simplified and easily-digestible world-view based on a political mythology for the masses.
One of the most significant ideological influences on the Nazis was the German nationalist Johann Gottlieb Fichte , whose works had served as an inspiration to Hitler and other Nazi Party members, including Dietrich Eckart and Arnold Fanck.
Another important figure in pre-Nazi völkisch thinking was Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl , whose work— Land und Leute Land and People , written between and —collectively tied the organic German Volk to its native landscape and nature, a pairing which stood in stark opposition to the mechanical and materialistic civilisation which was then developing as a result of industrialisation.
Völkisch nationalism denounced soulless materialism , individualism and secularised urban industrial society, while advocating a "superior" society based on ethnic German "folk" culture and German "blood".
The first party that attempted to combine nationalism and socialism was the Austria-Hungary German Workers' Party , which predominantly aimed to solve the conflict between the Austrian Germans and the Czechs in the multi-ethnic Austrian Empire , then part of Austria-Hungary.
During the era of the German Empire , völkisch nationalism was overshadowed by both Prussian patriotism and the federalist tradition of its various component states.
During his youth in Austria, Hitler was politically influenced by Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent Georg Ritter von Schönerer , who advocated radical German nationalism , antisemitism, anti-Catholicism , anti-Slavic sentiment and anti-Habsburg views.
The concept of the Aryan race , which the Nazis promoted, stems from racial theories asserting that Europeans are the descendants of Indo-Iranian settlers, people of ancient India and ancient Persia.
Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that certain groups of white people were members of an Aryan "master race" that is superior to other races and particularly superior to the Semitic race, which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Aryan mysticism claimed that Christianity originated in Aryan religious traditions, and that Jews had usurped the legend from Aryans.
After reading the book, Hitler called it "my Bible". In Germany, the belief that Jews were economically exploiting Germans became prominent due to the ascendancy of many wealthy Jews into prominent positions upon the unification of Germany in In , amongst the twenty-nine wealthiest German families with aggregate fortunes of up to 55 million marks at the time, five were Jewish and the Rothschilds were the second wealthiest German family.
Radical antisemitism was promoted by prominent advocates of völkisch nationalism, including Eugen Diederichs , Paul de Lagarde and Julius Langbehn.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte accused Jews in Germany of having been and inevitably of continuing to be a "state within a state" that threatened German national unity.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic forgery created by the secret service of the Russian Empire, the Okhrana.
Many antisemites believed it was real and thus it became widely popular after World War I. Prior to the Nazi ascension to power, Hitler often blamed moral degradation on Rassenschande "racial defilement" , a way to assure his followers of his continuing antisemitism, which had been toned down for popular consumption.
The Nazis claimed that Bismarck was unable to complete German national unification because Jews had infiltrated the German parliament and they claimed that their abolition of parliament had ended this obstacle to unification.
Nazism's racial policy positions may have developed from the views of important biologists of the 19th century, including French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck , through Ernst Haeckel 's idealist version of Lamarckism and the father of genetics , German botanist Gregor Mendel.
This may have been because of his " monist " atheistic , materialist philosophy, which the Nazis disliked, along with his friendliness to Jews, opposition to militarism and support altruism, with one Nazi official calling for them to be banned.
Mendelian inheritance , or Mendelism, was supported by the Nazis, as well as by mainstream eugenicists of the time. The Mendelian theory of inheritance declared that genetic traits and attributes were passed from one generation to another.
Hitler and other Nazi legal theorists were inspired by America's institutional racism and saw it as the model to follow. In particular, they saw it as a model for the expansion of territory and the elimination of indigenous inhabitants therefrom, for laws denying full citizenship for blacks, which they wanted to implement also against Jews, and for racist immigration laws banning some races.
In "Mein Kampf" Hitler extolled America as the only contemporary example of a country with racist "völkisch" citizenship statutes in the s, and Nazi lawyers made use of the American models in crafting laws for Nazi Germany.
During World War I, German sociologist Johann Plenge spoke of the rise of a "National Socialism" in Germany within what he termed the " ideas of " that were a declaration of war against the "ideas of " the French Revolution.
Oswald Spengler , a German cultural philosopher, was a major influence on Nazism, although after he became alienated from Nazism and was later condemned by the Nazis for criticising Adolf Hitler.
Spengler's book The Decline of the West , written during the final months of World War I , addressed the supposed decadence of modern European civilisation, which he claimed was caused by atomising and irreligious individualisation and cosmopolitanism.
Spengler's notions of "Prussian socialism" as described in his book Preussentum und Sozialismus "Prussiandom and Socialism", , influenced Nazism and the Conservative Revolutionary movement.
That is our freedom, freedom from the economic despotism of the individual". Spengler's definition of socialism did not advocate a change to property relations.
Wilhelm Stapel , an antisemitic German intellectual, used Spengler's thesis on the cultural confrontation between Jews as whom Spengler described as a Magian people versus Europeans as a Faustian people.
Arthur Moeller van den Bruck was initially the dominant figure of the Conservative Revolutionaries influenced Nazism.
Fascism was a major influence on Nazism. The seizure of power by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini in the March on Rome in drew admiration by Hitler, who less than a month later had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists.
Hitler spoke of Nazism being indebted to the success of Fascism's rise to power in Italy. At that period National Socialism was a very fragile growth".
Other Nazis—especially those at the time associated with the party's more radical wing such as Gregor Strasser , Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler—rejected Italian Fascism, accusing it of being too conservative or capitalist.
In his book The Hitler State Der Staat Hitlers , historian Martin Broszat writes:. National Socialism was not primarily an ideological and programmatic, but a charismatic movement , whose ideology was incorporated in the Fürher, Hitler, and which would have lost all its power to integrate without him.
Thus, any explication of the ideology of Nazism must be descriptive, as it was not generated primarily from first principles, but was the result of numerous factors, including Hitler's strongly-held personal views, some parts of the point plan , the general goals of the völkische and nationalist movements, and the conflicts between Nazi Party functionaries who battled "to win [Hitler] over to their respective interpretations of [National Socialism].
Nazism emphasised German nationalism , including both irredentism and expansionism. Nazism held racial theories based upon a belief in the existence of an Aryan master race that was superior to all other races.
The Nazis emphasised the existence of racial conflict between the Aryan race and others—particularly Jews, whom the Nazis viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated multiple societies and was responsible for exploitation and repression of the Aryan race.
The Nazis also categorised Slavs as Untermensch sub-human. Wolfgang Bialas argues that the Nazis' sense of morality could be described as a form of procedural virtue ethics, as it demanded unconditional obedience to absolute virtues with the attitude of social engineering and replaced common sense intuitions with an ideological catalogue of virtues and commands.
The ideal Nazi new man was to be race-conscious and an ideologically dedicated warrior who would commit actions for the sake of the German race while at the same time convinced he was doing the right thing and acting morally.
The Nazis believed an individual could only develop their capabilities and individual characteristics within the framework of the individual's racial membership; the race one belonged to determined whether or not one was worthy of moral care.
The Christian concept of self-denial was to be replaced with the idea of self-assertion towards those deemed inferior. Natural selection and the struggle for existence were declared by the Nazis to be the most divine laws; peoples and individuals deemed inferior were said to be incapable of surviving without those deemed superior, yet by doing so they imposed a burden on the superior.
Natural selection was deemed to favour the strong over the weak and the Nazis deemed that protecting those declared inferior was preventing nature from taking its course; those incapable of asserting themselves were viewed as doomed to annihilation, with the right to life being granted only to those who could survive on their own.
The German Nazi Party supported German irredentist claims to Austria , Alsace-Lorraine , the region now known as the Czech Republic and the territory known since as the Polish Corridor.
A major policy of the German Nazi Party was Lebensraum "living space" for the German nation based on claims that Germany after World War I was facing an overpopulation crisis and that expansion was needed to end the country's overpopulation within existing confined territory, and provide resources necessary to its people's well-being.
In Mein Kampf , Hitler stated that Lebensraum would be acquired in Eastern Europe, especially Russia. Through the peace with Russia the sustenance of Germany as well as the provision of work were to have been secured by the acquisition of land and soil, by access to raw materials, and by friendly relations between the two lands.
From to , Hitler evoked rhetoric of both the achievement of Lebensraum involving the acceptance of a territorially reduced Russia as well as supporting Russian nationals in overthrowing the Bolshevik government and establishing a new Russian government.
Asia, what a disquieting reservoir of men! The safety of Europe will not be assured until we have driven Asia back behind the Urals.
No organized Russian state must be allowed to exist west of that line. Policy for Lebensraum planned mass expansion of Germany's borders to eastwards of the Ural Mountains.
Historian Adam Tooze explains that Hitler believed that lebensraum was vital to securing American-style consumer affluence for the German people.
In this light, Tooze argues that the view that the regime faced a "guns or butter" contrast is mistaken. While it is true that resources were diverted from civilian consumption to military production, Tooze explains that at a strategic level "guns were ultimately viewed as a means to obtaining more butter.
While the Nazi pre-occupation with agrarian living and food production are often seen as a sign of their backwardness, Tooze explains this was in fact a major driving issue in European society for at least the last two centuries.
The issue of how European societies should respond to the new global economy in food was one of the major issues facing Europe in the early 20th century.
Agrarian life in Europe except perhaps with the exception of Britain was incredibly common—in the early s, over 9 million Germans almost a third of the work force were still working in agriculture and many people not working in agriculture still had small allotments or otherwise grew their own food.
Tooze estimates that just over half the German population in the s was living in towns and villages with populations under 20, people. Many people in cities still had memories of rural-urban migration—Tooze thus explains that the Nazis obsessions with agrarianism were not an atavistic gloss on a modern industrial nation but a consequence of the fact that Nazism as both an ideology and as a movement was the product of a society still in economic transition.
The Nazis obsession with food production was a consequence of the First World War. While Europe was able to avert famine with international imports, blockades brought the issue of food supply back into European politics, the Allied blockade of Germany in and after World War I did not cause an outright famine but chronic malnutrition did kill an estimated , people in Germany and Austria.
The economic crises of the interwar period meant that most Germans had memories of acute hunger. Thus Tooze concludes that the Nazis obsession with acquiring land was not a case of "turning back the clock" but more a refusal to accept that the result of the distribution of land, resources and population, which had resulted from the imperialist wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, should be accepted as final.
While the victors of the First World War had either suitable agricultural land to population ratios or large empires or both , allowing them to declare the issue of living space closed, the Nazis, knowing Germany lacked either of these, refused to accept that Germany's place in the world was to be a medium-sized workshop dependent upon imported food.
According to Goebbels, the conquest of Lebensraum was intended as an initial step  towards the final goal of Nazi ideology, which was the establishment of complete German global hegemony.
When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space.
In its racial categorisation , Nazism viewed what it called the Aryan race as the master race of the world—a race that was superior to all other races.
It also viewed a number of other peoples as dangerous to the well-being of the Aryan race. In order to preserve the perceived racial purity of the Aryan race, a set of race laws was introduced in which came to be known as the Nuremberg Laws.
At first these laws only prevented sexual relations and marriages between Germans and Jews, but they were later extended to the " Gypsies , Negroes , and their bastard offspring", who were described by the Nazis as people of "alien blood".
Aryan certificate and non-Aryans were now punishable under the race laws as Rassenschande or "race defilement".
A Nazi-era school textbook for German students entitled Heredity and Racial Biology for Students written by Jakob Graf described to students the Nazi conception of the Aryan race in a section titled "The Aryan: The Creative Force in Human History".
In Nazi Germany, the idea of creating a master race resulted in efforts to "purify" the Deutsche Volk through eugenics and its culmination was the compulsory sterilisation or the involuntary euthanasia of physically or mentally disabled people.
After World War II, the euthanasia programme was named Action T4. The July "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" prescribed compulsory sterilisation for people with a range of conditions which were thought to be hereditary, such as schizophrenia , epilepsy , Huntington's chorea and " imbecility ".
Sterilization was also mandated for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social deviance.